Health Desk- Diabetes is a lifelong disease. It is a metabolic disorder, in which the level of glucose in the blood of the patient’s body is very high. When a person’s body does not make enough insulin and the body’s cells do not respond properly to insulin. As such, the production of insulin is very important for the body as it transports glucose from the blood to the cells of the body. That’s why, when insulin is not produced in the right amount, it also affects the body metabolism of the sufferer.
What is diabetes? How many types of diabetes are there?
From the food we eat, the body gets glucose which the cells use to provide energy to the body. If insulin is not present in the body, then they are not able to do their work properly and cannot deliver glucose from the blood to the cells. Due to which glucose gets accumulated in the blood itself and excess glucose in the blood can prove to be harmful. Diabetes is generally of 3 types-
Type-2 diabetes and
Gestational diabetes, which is a condition characterized by high blood sugar during pregnancy.
What are the causes of diabetes?
When the body cannot use the glucose or sugar present in the blood properly. Then, the person gets the problem of diabetes. Generally, these conditions can be the main reason for diabetes-
Lack of insulin
Family history of diabetes
High cholesterol level
Habit of not exercising
High blood pressure
Bad eating habits
What are the symptoms of diabetes?
According to the increased blood sugar in the body of the sufferer, symptoms of diabetes appear in him. In most cases, if a person is suffering from pre-diabetes or type-2 diabetes, symptoms are not visible in the beginning of the problem. But, in patients with type-1 diabetes, diabetes symptoms appear very fast and they are also very serious. The main symptoms of type-1 and type-2 diabetes are-
Being very thirsty
Sudden increase or decrease in body size
Taking too long to heal
What is the diagnosis of diabetes?
A doctor should be consulted if diabetes or symptoms of diabetes are seen. For the diagnosis of diabetes, some of these types of tests may be advised-
A1C test or glycohaemoglobin test-
This type of test is done for type 2 diabetes. In which, the patient has to undergo a blood test once in every 3 months and his average blood glucose level is checked. The A1C test measures the level of glucose in the blood on a scale of 5 to 10. If a figure below 5.7 is shown in the test report, then it is normal. But if someone’s A1C level shows more than 6.5%, then he is called a diabetic patient.
Fasting Plasma Glucose Test-
This is the most common blood test to understand the condition of high blood sugar. For this test, a person has to give a blood sample while on an empty stomach. For which fasting is said to last for 10-12 hours. After that fasting plasma glucose test is done. This test is done to detect diabetes or prediabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance test-
In this test too, blood sample is taken on an empty stomach. Two hours before this test, the patient is given a drink containing glucose.
Random glucose tolerance test-
In this type of test, the blood sample of the victim is tested 4 times. If the blood sugar level is found to be more than twice the normal, then the pregnant woman is confirmed to have gestational diabetes.
What is the treatment of diabetes?
There is no permanent cure for type-1 diabetes, therefore, a person has to remain a patient of type-1 diabetes throughout his life. Such people have to take insulin with the help of which they try to control their condition. But, the symptoms of type-2 diabetes can be relieved without any medicine by daily exercise, balanced diet, timely breakfast and weight control. With the help of the right diet, it helps to control type-2 diabetes. Apart from this, some oral antibiotics help prevent the progression of type-2 diabetes.
What are the ways to prevent diabetes?
Diabetes is a serious disease that can cause problems for a lifetime. A person suffering from diabetes may have to face many problems related to health. But, by taking some precautions, diabetes can be avoided.
Eat less sweets. Avoid eating food full of sugar and refined carbohydrates.
Be active, exercise, go for morning and evening walks.
Drink more water. Avoid drinking sugary drinks and sodas. Also avoid eating ice cream, candies.
Lose weight and keep it under control.
Avoid smoking and taking alcohol.
Eat high fiber diet, consume protein in high quantity.
Don’t be deficient in Vitamin D. Because, deficiency of vitamin D increases the risk of diabetes.
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