Health Desk- Human brain is an essential part of the body as well as an excellent creation of nature. From the looks of it, it does not appear to be more than an organic creation. But it is also the center of our desires, emotions, mind, intelligence, mind, ego, consciousness, knowledge, experience, personality etc.
What is the real human brain?
Human brain is an essential part of the body as well as an excellent creation of nature. From the looks of it, it does not appear to be more than an organic creation. But it is also the center of our desires, emotions, mind, intelligence, mind, ego, consciousness, knowledge, experience, personality etc.
The brain is the control center of the central nervous system of animals. It regulates and controls their conduct. In mammals, the brain is located in the head and is protected by the skull. It is associated with the main sense organs, eyes, nose, tongue and ears, and is located close to them. The brain is present in all vertebrates but in vertebrates it is in the form of central brain or independent ganglia. In some animals like Cnidaria and starfish, it is not concentrated and it is spread everywhere in the body, whereas in some animals like sponge, there is no brain at all. In higher animals such as humans, brains are extremely complex. The human brain contains approximately 1 billion (1,00,00,00,000) nerve cells, each of which has more than 10,000 (10,000) connections with other nerve cells. The brain is the most complex organ.
Depiction of brain in ancient manuscripts of India-
The functions of various parts of the body are controlled and regulated by the brain. That’s why the brain is called the master organ of the body. Its main function is to control and regulate knowledge, intelligence, reasoning power, memory, thought, judgment, personality etc. The field of neuroscience is developing very fast all over the world. The need to consider the whole field of brain function at the molecular, cellular, genetic and behavioral levels has been fully realized to deal with major neurological diseases. A new study has concluded that the size of the brain may provide a clue to personality. In fact, children are born as a different personality and as their brain develops, their personality also develops accordingly.
The brain is situated in the skull. It is the seat of consciousness and memory. Impulses from all sense organs – eye, ear, nose, tongue and skin – come here, understanding which means getting knowledge is the job of the brain. The main centers for sending impulses through the nerve fibers and regulating those activities are in the brain, although these activities continue to take place from different centers located in the spinal cord. The work of collecting the knowledge gained from experience, thinking and drawing conclusions after thinking is also of this organ.
Structure of the brain-
The uppermost part of the brain is located in the hemispheres of the skull. Two small hemispheres of the cerebellum are seen fused towards the bottom of their posterior part. Its forward side is that part, which is called the midbrain or mesencephalon. The medullary head, or medulla oblongata, going down from it is called.
The cerebrum and cerebellum are covered by membranes called meninges. These three are: the tough alveoli, the lattice alveoli and the soft alveoli. The outermost is the tough tissue. There are those big veins in it, through which the blood returns. Due to fracture of cartilage, or damage due to injury, blood comes out from the veins located in it and accumulates in the brain, due to which the brain cells become useless and paralysis of the organs occurs. A blade comes out of this membrane and also goes in between the two hemispheres. Where these plates divide into two layers, they form those wide tubes, through which the returning blood and some cerebrospinal fluid also return.
It is the specialty of the human brain that both its hemispheres are much larger than the other parts. The two hemispheres extend from the frontal lobes on the right and left sides of the cranium to the posterior end of the cranium. Other parts are hidden from them. There is a deep gap between the hemispheres, at the bottom of which the two hemispheres are connected by a wide ribbon-like structure called Corpus Callosum. The color of the hemispheres appears gray from above.
Many deep fissures are made in the outer surface of the hemispheres, where the object of the outer surface of the brain enters inside it. It appears as if the fold of an object on the surface has been stretched and folded, causing folds in it. Because of this, many big and small trenches are formed on the surface of the brain, which are called sulcus. The curved circular parts of the gray brain surface between the furrows are called gyrus, because they are folded like the eardrum. Large and deep depressions are called fissures and separate specific regions of the brain. The front, side and back parts of the brain have been called lobes and lobules according to their position. The frontal part of the hemisphere is the frontal lobe, which is covered by the frontal bone. Similarly there are parietal lobes and occipital lobes and temporal lobes. Parishkhas and Karnak are built on all of these. There are also several special fissures. Some special fissures and furrows are discussed here. On the parietal lobe the central sulcus, also called the fissure of Rolando, runs from top to bottom and forward. In front of it is the operating part of the cerebrum, by whose action the muscles are compressed. If electrical stimulation is given at some place there, then the muscles which get the threads from the cells there start to hesitate. If the cells are destroyed or inactive due to any tumor, swelling, pressure etc., then the muscles do not hesitate, they do. They get paralyzed. The area behind the ten fissures is the impulse zone, where impulses are transmitted from different places of the skin. Visual field in the posterior occipital section, calcarine fissure is related to this field of vision. The impulses sent by the optic nerve and the path reach here and produce impressions of the objects seen.
On the lower side, the lower part of the fissure of Vilviav in the conch shell and the first conch shell receive the impulses of hearing. Here the signs of hearing originate. The cells here understand the form of the word. On the inner surface of the conch shell is the hippocampi karnak (Hippocampal gyrus), where there is sense of smell. The area of taste is also related to it. The parts and powers of smell and taste are much more developed in some animals than in man. That’s where much of the tactile sense lies behind Rolando’s fissure.
The frontal lobe is enlarged in humans as compared to all other animals, the anterior part of which has a special development. This part is connected by association fibers with all the motor and impulse centers, especially with those centers located near the motor area, which are related to the movement of the eye. Therefore, it is believed that this part regulates fine motor skills, which depend on the impulses reaching the eye and which require memory and experience. The subtle actions that take place in a person’s speaking, writing, preparing art objects with the fingers of the hand, etc., are controlled from here.
The cerebrum is believed to be the seat of the higher emotions. The place of all the qualities that separate a man from the animal is the brain.
Lateral Ventricles – If the hemispheres are cut in the transverse direction, then an empty space or cavity will be found inside it. There is this cavity in both the hemispheres, which is called the ventricle. These hemispheres extend from the frontal lobe to the posterior lobe. Within them, a very subtle art is covered on the brain, which is called Antriya. The endoplasmic reticulum is located in both the ventricles. These cavities are filled with cerebrospinal fluid, which drains into the third ventricle through a small foramen called the foramen of Munro, located between the optic thalami.
Cerebral Cortex – The thick layer of gray matter on the surface of the brain is called the cortex. Beneath it is the white colored medulla. Even in that there are gray colored islands and many small islets. These are called nucleus.
The cortex layer is made up exclusively of nerve cells, although it also contains filaments derived from cells and connective tissue called neuromylia, but cells predominate in this layer.
The cortex itself consists of several levels. In the level of sutras, there are two types of sutras: One, those that connect different centers together (Many of these sutras come from the centers of the medullary or medullary below and the cerebellum, some are connected to the centers located in the brain itself). We do); Distances are the axons that leave the cells there and go down into the endocapsule and reach there in the degree of Hucker collected in the pyramidal tract.
In humans and higher animals such as apes, gorillas etc., formation of distinct levels in the cortex is indicative of an advanced stage of development. In lower class animals neither the stratification of the cortex is found nor there is so much development of the cerebrum.
Endothelial – It is specially made up of efferents coming out of the cells of the cortex and afferent threads going into them. Clusters of cells are located here and there between these filaments and their color is grey. The flesh is of white colour.
The cerebellum is located under the back of the brain. In front of it is the midbrain, which is connected to the cerebrum by three pillars. Due to the outer surface being covered with gray matter, its color is also gray and like the brain, there is white matter inside it. It also has two hemispheres, cutting of which shows a white-coloured, tree-like structure in the middle. Due to the deepening of fissures in the cerebellum, it is divided into lamina. Such a composition is called Arbervitae.
The cerebellum is particularly related to the inner ear and to the muscles and joints. Sensations from other organs keep coming here. It is the work of this organ to harmonize all of them, so that the functions of the organs continue to be equal. Keeping the body fit is the special function of this organ. The channels by which these impulses reach the end of the ear, they reach from the cortex to the dentate nucleus, which is a large mass of gray matter, ie cells, located inside the hemisphere. From there new sources reach the red nucleus located on the other side in the midbrain. From there the impulses reach the brain.
The upper part in front of the cerebellum is the midbrain and the lower part is the medulla oblongata. The connection between the cerebellum and cerebrum is established by the midbrain. Through the midbrain, the threads go to the same side of the cerebrum, or cross the midline, to the other side.
In the middle of the midbrain is the canal of Sylvius, which transports the cerebrospinal fluid from the third ventricle to the fourth ventricle. Its upper part is divided by two right angle furrows into four protuberances, which are called quadrilateral bodies or bodies (Corpora quadrigemina). Sources from the retina of the eye reach through the optic nerve in the upper two buds. These impulses regulate those reflex actions in the star of the eye, due to which the star is narrowed or expanded. In the lower projections, threads come from the temporal part of the inner ear and new threads transmit the impulses coming from them to the place of the brain’s concha.
Other threads also enter the middle brain from the spinal cord. Pain, cold, heat, etc. coming here, collect in many bundles, cross to the same or other side through spinal cord, reach thalamus through pons and midbrain and go to their designated center in the brain, or cortex Are.
In front of the nuclear tube, through this lower part also, the stimulators and the sensory fibers go to many parts. Combination formulas are also found here.
Pons varolii – This part is located between the medulla oblongata and the midbrain and keeps both the hemispheres of the cerebellum together. In the picture it appears as a round protuberance protruding towards the front. On examining the brain, threads going in the transverse direction are visible on it. These threads pass through the endocapsule and midbrain through the pons and go to the spinal cord. Not all formulas are so convex. Some of the deeper sutras lie below the sutras of the pyramidal path coming from above. Of particular importance are the sources of the pyramid paths, which pass through the Pons. Several other filaments also pass through the pons, which are called longitudinal, middle and lateral ribs. The nuclei of the fifth, sixth, seventh and eighth nerves are located in this part.
Medulla oblongata – only part of the medulla is visible from the view, which goes up and joins the middle brain and the pons; But its composition is different from the spinal cord. Behind it is the cerebellum. Here its size becomes twice that of the spinal cord. On its broad and flat surface, a square-shaped groove has been formed, on which a membrane is covered. This is called the Fourth ventricle, in which the cerebrospinal fluid keeps coming through the canal of Sylvius. Behind it is the cerebellum.
Medulla oblongata is a part of utmost importance. The cardiac center, the respiratory center and the blood center are located in the lower part of the fourth ventricle, which controls these functions. The centers of the eighth, ninth, tenth, eleventh and twelfth cerebral nerves are also located in this part. This part is connected to the cerebrum, cerebellum and midbrain by many sources and many sources go to the spinal cord and come from there. These threads are grouped in sets. These are special threads:
1. Pyramidal tract, 2. Median longitudinal bundles, and 3. Median filler.
1.Pyramid path has only motor threads, which originate from the motor cells of the cortex of the cerebrum, passing through the endothelium, coming out of the midbrain and pons, coming to the spinal cord and gathering in two bundles in the middle groove of the cord. Located in front and behind, go down. Some sutras reach the bottom and cross to the other side and some go down to the same side and then cross to the other side, but in the end the weak threads go to the other side. Where they are distributed in muscles etc. For this reason, due to an injury on one side of the brain, or bleeding there, when the cells on that side become inactive, the muscles on the other side of the body become erect.
2. The threads of the medium longitudinal bundles come to the spinal cord through the midbrain and the pons and connect the centers of many nerves on that side as well as on the other side, due to which the regulation of the activities of the nerves on both sides is possible.
3. The ‘medium array’ contains only the sensing threads. Chah cluster is located in between the above two clusters. These sutras coming from the spinal cord, going above the crossing of the pyramidal sutras, the right sutras on the other side go to the left side and the left side sutras go to the centers located in the brain.
10 interesting facts about human brain-
1. Our brain uses 20% of its total energy and stored oxygen and only 25% of the glucose (sugar) flowing in our blood. The weight of the human brain is about 2% of the total body weight i.e. 3 pounds, out of which 60% of the weight is the fat present in it, due to which the brain is the fattest part of our body.
2. According to scientists, the brain is more active during the day than at night. Roughly speaking, there are about 100 billion neuron cells in our brain.
3. According to anthropologist John Hawkes of the University of Wisconsin, located in Madison, the human brain has shrunk to about 9 cubic inches i.e. 150 cubic centimeters, while the average area of the human brain in ancient times was 82 cubic inches i.e. 1350 cubic centimeters l
4. Neurons grow faster than 2,00,000 per minute during pregnancy.
5. You will be surprised to know that the human brain stops working only when there is a lack of oxygen for only 5 minutes.
6. Did you know that the human brain generates 12-25 watts of power, which is enough to light up a low voltage LED light.
7. You will also be surprised to know that the wrinkles visible on our face make the human brain even sharper. The surface of the brain is known as the cerebral cortex, which has some intricate deep crevices, some It has small grooves, known as “sulci” and spots like protrusions, known as “gyri”. In addition, it is home to about 100 billion nerve or neuron cells. Is.
The meandering and folded surface allows the brain to spread over a greater surface area, thus giving the skull more processing power within the limited confines. Apart from this, it has been proved by various researches that dolphins have more wrinkles in their brain than humans.
8. Did you know that most of the cells in the brain are not neurons? Neurons make up only 10% of brain cells, while 90% of brain cells are made up of “glia”, which is Greek for “glue”. According to neuroscientists, “glia” is a sticky substance that holds neurons together. A paper in the Journal of Neurobiology in 2005 described the role of these glia cells, which increase chromosome assembly and In order to promote activities, they provide protection to them in the course of their development.
9. Many times we hear about left brain or right brain from the mouth of people, which is wrong. There is only one brain in our body.
10. It is impossible for our brains to do too many things at once. Generally, we are encouraged to do multi-tasking, but in reality doing different tasks at the same time is not advisable.
The book “Brain Rules” explains how multi-tasking can be harmful. Research shows that multi-tasking can increase our error rate by 50 percent. The percentage goes up and it takes us twice as long to do a task. When the brain tries to do two things at once, it divides up one half of the brain for each task and completes it.
Through the above article, what is the human brain? You can know more about its functioning and reasons for its shrinkage etc.
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