Health desk- Malaria is caused by the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito. Mosquitoes of this species are more numerous during the rainy season. Because rain water gets contaminated due to accumulation for a long time and this is the origin of mosquitoes of this species. Due to the bite of malaria mosquito, a person starts having fever and headache. Sometimes this fever subsides and then comes again. Due to the bite of the female Anopheles mosquito, the bacteria from its sting enter the patient’s blood and affect the cells. Malaria is found in tropical and sub-tropical areas, which include most of the countries in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. In India, this disease is found throughout the year but its infection increases during the rainy season.
Symptoms of Malaria-
There are many symptoms of malaria but it is not necessary that all these symptoms are visible in the same patient.
2. Having a headache
5. Feeling cold
7. Feeling tired
Types of Malaria Parasites-
There are five types of malaria parasites.
1. Plasmodium Falciparum: This malaria parasite is usually found in Africa, due to which the patient experiences headache along with chills.
2. Plasmodium Vivax:- This vivax parasite bites during day time and its effect starts appearing after 48 hours. Due to this disease there is headache, pain in hands and legs, loss of appetite and high fever. Is.
3. Plasmodium ovale:- This is an unusual parasite and is found in West Africa. It can live in the liver for many years without producing symptoms in the patient.
4. Plasmodium Malaria:- It is a type of malaria protozoa. Due to this disease, the patient starts having fever every fourth day and due to low amount of protein in the body, swelling starts occurring in the body.
5. Plasmodium knowlesi: This parasite is commonly found in Southeast Asia and is a primate malaria parasite. In this, the patient gets fever along with chills and has to face problems like headache, loss of appetite, fever.
Which mosquito causes malaria?
Malaria is spread by the bite of female Anopheles mosquitoes. Mosquitoes of this species bite in the evening or night, due to which symptoms like high fever, headache, chills etc. are seen in the patient. Malaria is spread through the bite of Anopheles mosquitoes only when they have previously been infected with the blood of a malaria infected patient.
Causes of Malaria-
1. Anopheles female mosquito is the main cause of malaria. Also called Plasmodium, most malaria infections in India are caused by Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum.
2. If the Anopheles mosquito bites another person after biting a malaria infected patient, then malaria bacteria enter the body of the other person as well.
3. Malaria also occurs due to exchange of blood of a person suffering from malaria.
4. If this malaria parasite enters the liver of the patient, it can remain in the liver of the patient for at least a year or a few years.
Ways to Prevent Malaria-
There are many measures to prevent malaria, but to prevent and avoid malaria, do not allow mosquitoes to breed.
1. Malaria mosquitoes bite mostly in the evening or night, so if possible stay indoors at this time.
2 To avoid malaria, use clothes that can cover most of the body.
3. Do not allow rain water or dirty water to accumulate around the house. Because there is a risk of malaria bacteria growing in it.
4 If fever is increasing rapidly in a person’s body, then he should consult a doctor and get examined.
5 Antimalarial medicine should be taken to reduce the possibility of malaria.
Diagnosis of Malaria-
1. A blood sample is taken from the body of a malaria patient and a blood smear is prepared from this sample.
2. If the doctor has doubts due to the absence of malaria parasite in the blood smear, he should re-test in 8 to 12 hours for the next 36 hours.
3. If the number of malaria parasites is increasing or decreasing in the blood, it is checked by the doctor.
4 Genetic and blood tests use special stains to show the presence of parasites.
Treatment of Malaria.
1 There are many types of medicines available for the treatment of malaria but all these medicines depend on the severity of the disease. Such as antimalarial drugs, medicines to treat symptoms and fever, antiseizure medicines and electrolytes.
2. In malaria, the most serious symptoms are seen in patients suffering from falciparum. Because it can cause diseases like kidney failure, difficulty in breathing and coma. To treat this disease, the patient has to be admitted to the ICU for a few days.
3 The use of chloroquine for malaria is considered suitable for pregnant women.
Damage caused by malaria disease.
1. Cerebral Malaria: This can also be the cause of coma because when the blood cells are filled with parasites, they block small blood vessels in the patient’s brain, causing swelling in the brain and damage to parts of the brain. There is a risk of this happening.
2. Difficulty in breathing:- Breathing problem occurs due to accumulated fluid in the lungs.
3. Failure of body parts: Due to malaria, the patient’s kidneys, liver and spleen may fail. This situation can prove fatal.
4. Anemia: Malaria damages the red blood cells due to which there is a risk of severe anemia.
5. Low blood sugar: Blood sugar may decrease in malaria and due to low blood sugar, the patient may go into coma or may even die.