Health Desk- A woman has a very important part in the life of every human being, but people aware of this also ignore the diseases of women, the result of which is visible in the coming future. Women do not take care of themselves in today’s time, due to which they have to face many serious problems, in which PCOS / PCOD (PCOS / PCOD) is becoming more visible. Earlier, the problem of PCOS used to occur in the age group of 30 to 35 years, but due to changing lifestyle and diet, it is now seen in school going girls. Despite this, most of the women do not have complete knowledge about what is PCOS? The increase of this problem can be a sign of future problems to come.
What is polycystic ovary syndrome?
Polycystic ovary syndrome occurs when at least two of the following symptoms are present:
- Menstrual irregularities with absence of menstrual cycles, too short or too long cycles with resultant ovulatory dysfunction, thus affecting female fertility
- Symptoms of hyperandrogenism (increased male hormones) are manifested by hirsutism (increased hair growth on the face and body, especially in certain areas), acne and alopecia (decreased hair quality and quantity). Hyperandrogenism is also responsible for lack of follicular maturation, resulting in absence of ovulation and an increased risk of metabolic syndrome;
- Polycystic ovaries on ultrasound, that is, ovaries that are larger than normal in size and contain a large number of small follicles.
Polycystic ovary syndrome is often associated with hyperinsulinemia, which causes insulin resistance.
The most frequent manifestation of insulin resistance is difficulty losing weight, which contributes to a further increase in androgen production, exacerbating the clinical picture.
Not all PCOS patients have the same symptoms, as different combinations are possible.
What are the causes of polycystic ovary syndrome?
- The causes of polycystic ovary syndrome are not yet fully known, but it is thought to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors.
- Since it is a disorder of the childbearing years, symptoms of the disease often develop with the onset of the first menstrual period (menarche), but it is not unusual for them to appear in later years.
What could be the consequences of the situation?
- The short, medium and long term consequences are significant and include obesity, infertility, diabetes, cardiovascular disease (high blood pressure and hypercholesterolemia), depression, obstructive sleep apnea and increased risk of endometrial cancer.
- Infertility is due to a disovulatory factor in 40% of cases due to difficulty in conception and an increased incidence of obstetric problems (eg, miscarriage, gestational diabetes, fetal macrosomia, pre-eclampsia, congenital anomalies).
Gynecological examination for the diagnosis of polycystic ovaries-
- Polycystic ovary syndrome is diagnosed by a gynecologist when hyperandrogenism or ovulatory dysfunction associated with an ultrasound picture of a polycystic ovary is suspected and other causes of hyperandrogenism have been ruled out.
- During the gynecological examination, in fact, the specialist will be able to confirm the menstrual cycle, the physical characteristics of the patient, any family pathology and the presence or absence of polycystic ovaries through transvaginal ultrasound.
- If necessary, a blood sample will also be taken to assess hormonal balance, lipid and glycemic profiles, thyroid function, and vitamin D, to complete the diagnostic picture.
How is polycystic ovary syndrome treated?
Polycystic ovary syndrome is treated differently depending on its manifestations.
To limit signs of hyperandrogenism, taking an estrogen-progestin pill (contraceptive pill) may be useful, while for patients with menstrual cycle abnormalities who are seeking pregnancy, various therapeutic approaches depending on the clinical Attempts are made to induce ovulation with picture, age and duration of pregnancy (weight loss, physical activity, lifestyle changes, clomiphene citrate, metformin, inositol, gonadotropins or IVF).
In any case, adopting a correct lifestyle: a healthy, balanced diet, weight loss (if the patient is overweight) and regular physical activity are essential to help prevent the more serious consequences of this syndrome.
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