Health Desk- The prostate is a gland found only in men. It is about the size of a walnut and is present below the neck of the bladder around the exit of the bladder (urethra). The prostate makes a milky fluid, which is a component of semen and serves as food for sperm.
What is prostate cancer ?
Prostate cancer is a type of cancer that occurs in the prostate gland. Prostate cancer begins when cells in the prostate gland grow out of control. The prostate is a gland found only in men. It produces some fluid that helps in the formation of semen. Prostate cancer grows slowly. However, many prostate cancers are more aggressive and can spread outside the prostate gland, which can be fatal. Prostate cancer survival rates can be greatly improved with early detection and individualized treatment. The prostate is a walnut-sized gland in men that surrounds the urethra, just below the bladder and in front of the rectum. is located in – the tube that carries urine out of the bladder. The size of the prostate can change as a man ages. In younger males, it will be the size of a walnut, but in older males it can be much larger.
What is the symptom of prostate cancer?
In most cases, prostate cancer does not cause any symptoms. But men with advanced stages of cancer may experience some symptoms if they have prostate cancer. As-
1. Difficulty or burning sensation in urination.
2. Frequent urge to urinate, especially at night.
3. Bleeding in urine or semen.
4. Having pain while urinating.
5. In some cases, pain on ejaculation
6.Difficulty in getting or maintaining an erection.
7. Pain or discomfort on sitting, if the prostate is enlarged.
8. Bone pain.
What are the causes of prostate cancer?
1. Older age – the risk increases with age in men, especially after the age of 50 years. That’s why whenever you see symptoms or have any other problem, see a doctor without delay.
2. Race – African American men are twice as likely to develop the disease as white men. That is, black men are more likely to get prostate cancer than white men.
3. Having a family history – a father or brother in a family has been diagnosed with prostate cancer, especially if it is at a relatively young age – the risk is increased. Having a family history of breast and ovarian cancer increases the risk of developing prostate cancer. May also be associated with an inherited risk (BRCA gene mutation).
4. Food with more fat – Food which contains more fat ie fat should be avoided, and nutritious diet and simple food should be consumed.
5. Obesity – Uncontrolled weight develops many problems. That’s why it is necessary to keep your weight right with yoga and exercise so that no disease like cancer can ever happen.
Can prostate cancer be prevented ?
There is no clear prevention strategy for prostate cancer, but it can be prevented by taking some precautions, such as – There is some conflicting evidence that a healthy diet composed of low fat, high vegetables and fruits may help reduce the risk of prostate cancer. Regular checkup with PSA blood test and physical exam is necessary to detect prostate cancer in early stage. Regular full body check-up every few months after age 50, if any abnormality while urinating See a doctor right away or get screened if you have any problems. A healthy diet and regular exercise are also important for maintaining good health and preventing disease in general.
Prostate cancer types-
Almost all prostate cancers are adenocarcinomas. These cancers develop from gland cells (cells that make prostate fluid that mixes with semen). Other types of cancer that can start in the prostate include:
small cell carcinoma.
Transitional cell carcinoma.
These other types of prostate cancer are rare. If you are told you have prostate cancer, there is a high chance it is adenocarcinoma. Some prostate cancers grow quickly and spread, but most grow slowly. In fact, according to the American Cancer Society, autopsy studies show that many older men (and even some younger men) who died of other causes also had prostate cancer that affected them at some point during their lives. did not do.
Prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia –
In PIN, there are changes in how the cells of the prostate gland look when viewed under a microscope, but abnormal cells do not grow in other parts of the prostate (such as cancer cells). How abnormal the pattern of the cells look, On the basis of this they are classified as:
Low-grade PIN: – The pattern of prostate cells appears almost normal.
High Grade Pin:- In this the pattern of cells looks more unusual.
Low-grade PIN is not known to be associated with a man’s risk of prostate cancer. On the other hand, high-grade PIN is considered a possible precursor to prostate cancer. If you have a prostate biopsy and a high-grade PIN is found, there is a higher chance that you may develop prostate cancer over time.
Prostate cancer screening-
If prostate cancer is suspected because of screening tests or symptoms, tests will be needed to be sure.
1.Medical History and Physical Test –
If your doctor suspects you may have prostate cancer, he or she will ask you about any symptoms, such as any urinary or sexual problems, and how long you’ve had them. You may also be asked about possible risk factors, including your family history. Your doctor will also examine you. This may include a digital rectal exam (DRE), during which the doctor inserts a gloved, lubricated finger into your rectum to feel for any bumps or hard areas on the prostate, to rule out cancer.
2. PSA blood test –
Prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein made by cells in the prostate gland (both normal cells and cancer cells). PSA is found mostly in semen, but small amounts are also in the blood. The PSA blood test is mainly used to screen for prostate cancer in men without symptoms. This is one of the first tests done in men whose symptoms may be due to prostate cancer. PSA in blood is measured in units of nanograms per milliliter (ng/mL). The higher the PSA level, the higher the chance of getting prostate cancer.
3. Prostate Biopsy –
If the results of a PSA blood test, DRE, or other tests suggest that you may have prostate cancer, you will most likely need a prostate biopsy. A biopsy is a procedure in which a small sample of the prostate is removed and viewed under a microscope. goes. A core needle biopsy is the main method used to diagnose prostate cancer. During a biopsy, the doctor usually views the prostate with an imaging test such as transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) or MRI, or a ‘fusion’ of the two.
4. Imaging Tests for Prostate Cancer –
Imaging tests use X-rays, magnetic fields, sound waves, or radioactive materials to make pictures of the inside of your body. One or more imaging tests may be used:
5. To see cancer in the prostate-
To help the doctor see the prostate during certain procedures (such as prostate biopsy or certain types of prostate cancer treatment)
6. To see the spread of prostate cancer to other parts of the body-
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – MRI scans use radio waves and strong magnets to create detailed images of soft tissue in the body. An MRI scan can give doctors a very clear picture of the prostate and surrounding areas. A contrast material called gadolinium may be injected into a vein before the scan to better see details.
What is the treatment for prostate cancer?
1. Active surveillance –
Active surveillance is often used to closely monitor cancer. This usually includes doctor visits with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) blood test every 6 months and a digital rectal exam (DRE) at least once a year.
Prostate biopsy and imaging tests may also be done every 1 to 3 years. If your test results are negative, your doctor will talk to you about treatment options to cure the cancer.
2. Surgery –
Surgery is a common option for curing prostate cancer if it has not spread outside the prostate gland. The main type of surgery for prostate cancer is a radical prostatectomy. In this operation, the surgeon removes the entire prostate gland and some of the surrounding tissue, including the seminal vesicles.
3. Radiation therapy –
Radiation therapy uses high-energy rays or particles to kill cancer cells. Depending on the stage of prostate cancer and other factors, radiation therapy may be used.
The main types of radiation therapy used for prostate cancer are:
- External beam radiation
- Brachytherapy (internal radiation)
4. Cryotherapy –
Cryotherapy (also called cryosurgery or cryoablation) is the use of very cold temperatures to freeze and kill most of the prostate along with prostate cancer cells. Even though it is called cryosurgery, it is not actually any kind of surgery. Cryotherapy is sometimes used if the cancer has come back after radiation therapy. It may be a treatment option for men with low-risk, early-stage prostate cancer who cannot have surgery or radiation therapy. However, most doctors do not use cryotherapy as the primary treatment for prostate cancer.
5. Hormone therapy –
Hormone therapy is also called androgen suppression therapy. The goal is to reduce levels of male hormones called androgens in the body, or to stop them from promoting prostate cancer cells. Androgens encourage prostate cancer cells to grow.
Apart from this, there are other treatments for prostate cancer, such as -:
3. Target Therapy.
Who treats prostate cancer?
Specialized doctors who treat prostate cancer include:
1.Urologist: A surgeon who treats diseases of the urinary system and the male reproductive system (including the prostate).
2. Radiation Oncologist: A doctor who treats cancer with radiation therapy.
3.Medical Oncologist: A doctor who treats cancer with drugs such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and immunotherapy.
You can reduce your risk of prostate cancer if you:
1. Choose a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables-
Eat a variety of fruits, vegetables and whole grains. Fruits and vegetables contain many vitamins and nutrients that can contribute to your health.
Whether or not you can prevent prostate cancer through diet has yet to be conclusively proven. But eating a healthy diet with a variety of fruits and vegetables can improve your overall health.
2. Choose healthy food instead of supplements-
No studies have shown that supplements play a role in reducing the risk of prostate cancer. Instead, choose foods that are rich in vitamins and minerals so that you can maintain healthy levels of vitamins in your body.
3. Exercise most days of the week-
Exercise improves your overall health, helps you maintain your weight and improves your mood. Try to exercise most days of the week. If you’re new to exercise, start slow and work your way up to more exercise time each day.
4. Maintain a healthy weight-
If your current weight is healthy, try to maintain it by choosing a healthy diet and exercising most days of the week. If you need to lose weight, add more exercise and reduce the number of calories you eat each day. Ask your doctor to help you create a healthy weight loss plan.
5. Talk to your doctor about your increased risk of prostate cancer-
If you have a very high risk of prostate cancer, you and your doctor may consider medicines or other treatments to lower the risk. Some studies suggest that taking 5-alpha reductase inhibitors, including finasteride (Propecia, Proscar) and dutasteride (Avodart), may reduce the overall risk of developing prostate cancer. These drugs are used to control prostate gland enlargement and hair loss.
However, some evidence indicates that people taking these medicines may have an increased risk of developing a more severe form of prostate cancer (high-grade prostate cancer). If you’re concerned about your risk of developing prostate cancer, talk with your doctor.
This article will help point you in the right direction about prostate cancer. Thank you.