Health Desk- Cancer is a very dangerous disease that can affect the cells present in any part or organ of the body. In cancer, the affected cells keep on dividing. Due to which the tumor starts growing or the cancer starts spreading to other parts of the body. There are generally two types of tumors which are known as benign and malignant. Benign tumors do not spread from one part of the body to another, whereas malignant ones tend to spread from one part of the body to another. Along with the different types of cancer, their internal causes are also different. Cancer can be prevented to a great extent by avoiding the causes and risk factors of cancer.
What is cancer ?
A disorder of abnormal growth of cells is called cancer. In cancer, cells start growing uncontrollably and in an uncontrolled way, which is not part of the normal growth system of the body. Abnormal changes or mutations in DNA cause most types of cancer.
Not all types of cells present in a tumor are the same. Only 1% of cancer steam cells are present in the tumor. Steam cells look very similar to normal body cells. But it has the ability to self-renew, these are the same cells that help cancer to spread. These cells start the process of dividing and transformation to form new cell tumours.
How many types of cancer are there ?
Cancer can be divided into the following types.
Carcinoma Cancer usually occurs in the epithelial tissue. These tissues make up the surface of the organs present inside and outside the body such as the skin, the surface of the intestine and the surface inside the mouth and the inside of the nose, etc. Carcinoma is considered to be the most common type of cancer. Some common examples of carcinoma are prostate cancer, breast cancer, and cancer in the squamous cells of the skin.
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Sarcoma is a malignant cancer that occurs in the connective tissues. For example, cancer occurs in adipose tissue, areolar tissue, tendons, ligament bones, etc.
Leukemia is a cancer of the blood that occurs when white blood cells are produced uncontrollably in the blood. The main types of leukemia are lymphocytic and myeloid which are in various stages of mutating to form white blood in bone marrow.
Lymphoma is a cancer of the lymphatic system and its associated organs. Lymph is a special fluid. There are generally two types of lymphoma. Which are known as Hodgkin and Nunn Hodgkin lymphoma. Apart from this, according to the part of the body in which cancer occurs, cancer is known by the following names such as-
What are the symptoms of cancer ?
The symptoms are also according to the part of the body in which the cancer has occurred. Apart from this, some special types of symptoms can be seen which depend on the type of cancer and the location of the cancer. However, there are some other symptoms that can be seen with cancer such as-
Loss of appetite.
Change in voice.
Coughing continuously for a month.
Being vulnerable to frequent infections.
Wounds do not heal quickly.
Pain in muscles and joints.
Continuous difficulty in breathing.
Sudden increase or decrease in body weight.
Difficulty swallowing food.
Feeling tired or weak.
Digestive diseases such as diarrhea or constipation.
Early scarring on the skin.
There is some change in the size or structure of a lump on the skin.
Feeling of lump under the skin.
Frequent bluish discoloration in any part of the skin.
What is the cause of cancer ?
Cancer is usually caused by some change in the DNA. DNA is the brain of cells that instructs them to multiply. When there is a fault in these instructions, the cells start growing uncontrollably. As a result, cancer develops. The cause of cancer is also some substance which is called carcinogen.
Carcinogens are one of the many causes of cancer such as chemicals present in smoke and ultraviolet rays etc. Apart from this, in some cases human papilloma virus can also be the cause of cancer, but a single carcinogen cannot be blamed for cancer. There are also some other carcinogens that together with factors like our diet and health can cause cancer such as-
Consuming alcohol for a long time increases the risk of liver cancer or cancer in many other parts.
Long-term use of tobacco or its products such as cigarettes or chewing gum can cause oral cancer.
Consumption of healthy diet refined foods which are low in fiber increases the risk of colon cancer.
Certain types of hormones can also be responsible for cancer such as increased testosterone levels can lead to prostate cancer and increased estrogen levels can lead to breast cancer.
With age, the risk of getting some types of cancer also increases like
That colon cancer, breast cancer and prostate cancer etc.
Genetic defects or mutations can also increase the risk of cancer to a great extent, such as if there is any kind of mutation in the brca-1 or brca-2 gene in women, then the chances of getting breast cancer become more.
Cancer can also be genetic, as if someone in the family already has cancer, then you can also be at risk of it. Most of the cases of breast cancer are seen in this.
Some harmful substances that come into contact during any work also increase the risk of getting cancer, such as dyes, tar and chemicals like aniline increase the risk of bladder cancer.
Bacterial and viral infections cause certain systemic disorders that also act as a factor in cancer, such as H pylori infection, colon cancer, hepatitis B and C liver cancer and human papilloma virus infection causing cervical cancer. Can be made.
Exposure to ultraviolet rays for a long time also increases the risk of cancer, such as exposure to radiation due to repeated X-rays. Apart from this, obesity also increases the risk of cancer.
Consuming high amounts of fat-rich things and reducing physical activities also worsens the balance of the body and increases the risk of cancer.
Being under excessive stress is considered to be a major risk factor for cancer as it seriously affects overall health. Apart from this, due to recent stress, the immune system becomes very weak, due to which the risk of developing cancer increases.
Ways to avoid cancer-
Some methods can be adopted to avoid cancer such as-
Eat fiber rich foods in moderation, Avoid excessive exposure to sunlight, Avoid alcohol, Avoid smoking, Avoid high fat intake, Avoid using red meat, Eating outside or packaged food Avoid.
If you work in a place where there is a risk of exposure to radiation, use adequate safety equipment.
Exercise regularly as well as keep body weight normal.
Keep checking your BMI ie Body Mass Index regularly.
Keep checking your body regularly so that if any kind of problem arises, it can be detected.
If the skin starts turning blue or any wound is not healing quickly or if there is a long-standing disease which is not getting cured, then see a doctor about it immediately.
Get all types of vaccinations done regularly. Human papilloma virus vaccine prevents the development of cervical cancer, also get hepatitis B vaccine. Hepatitis B can cause liver cancer.
Adopt ways to reduce stress.
Do yoga and meditation and do other activities that calm the mind.
Note- This article is written for educational purpose. There is no substitute for any disease. Therefore, consult a qualified doctor for more information. Thank you.